Stain Removal Guide

Stain Removal:A stain is a spot left on fabric when the fabric absorbed foreign substances. Stain is dirty mark and it can be removed using stain removal agents , washing and cleaning. Simple and general stain are removed easily but stubborn stain cannot be removed easily so we must seek help of chemical agents.it is very essential to know composition and colour of fabric and nature, age of stain before removing stain. 

General procedure for stain Removal 

1. Identify the stain

2. Classify the stain 

3. Select reagent to be used

4. Select procedure to be used

5. Proceed to remove stains 

TYPES OF STAIN REMOVAL

1. Organic solvents  :-  benzene , methyl spirit are used

2.  Bleach :- chlorine and oxygen are used

3. Alkalis :- soda and borax are used

4. Oxidizing agents :- sodium hypochlorite

5. Reducing Agents :- sodium hydro sulphate

6. Acids :- oxalic acid , potassium are used

CLASSIFICATION OF STAINS

1. Animal stain :- Blood, egg , milk ,meat , urine. Warm water should never be used on these stain as main content of this stain is protein and when warm water is used it coagulates protein and sets stain.

2. Vegetables stain :- These stains are caused by plant product such as tea, coffee , juices , fruit, tomato , wine. 

3. Grease :- This class includes stain such as butter , oil, paint , tar, ghee . A grease solvent will remove these

4. Mineral stain :- These stain are caused by writing ink, medicines, rust 

5. Natural dyes :- These class includes stain cause by betel leaf, chocolate, tobacco

6. Alkaline stains :- these class includes stain caused by urine and perspiration which are old 

7. Sugar solutions colour :- These stains are caused by jams, jellies , soft drinks , syrups

PRINCIPLES OF STAIN REMOVAL 

  • All stain should be remove while it is still fresh. 

  • Known stain are treated with specific reagent for their removal. if it's nature are unknown use slowly starting from least harmful method. 

  • Old stain are difficult to remove so soak in glycerin to soften 

  • The reagent and fabric should stay in contact with other for minimum time

  • The room should have good ventilation

  • Short cuts should be avoided.
TREATMENT FOR REMOVAL OF STAINS AND SPOTS

1. Ink stain :- 

For blue and black ink , apply lemon juice and leave for half hour or  soak in curd for 30 minutes and launder. We can use oxalic acid also with half cup of water and rub stain with clean rug

2. Lipstick stain :- 

Soften the stain by putting glycerine and apply methylated spirit.  If stain is stubborn bleach with hydrogen peroxide .

3. Make - up ( Mascara , other ) :-

Sponge with petrol or ammonia and launder in hot water

4. Alcoholic stains :-

If alcohol is spilled , sponge with clean cloth dipped in warm water . If brown stain remain use hydrogen peroxide few drops 

5. Candle wax :- 

Scrap it with nail or blunt knife and place tissue paper under and above the stain and apply warm iron.

6. Chewing gum :-

Remove surface of gum with blunt knife or nail . Apply ice and soak in icy cold water for some times. Launder

7. Blood , tea , coffee , chocolate :-

Soak in cold water for hour and wash with lukewarm water containing detergent after soaking for half hour. Or for coffee stain pour very hot water immediately. You can use acetic acid also . Soak in acetic acid and rub gently .

8. Enamel paint :- 

If the paint is wet still , treat with little turpentine on both side and use blotting paper

9. Glue :- 

Remove by washing in hot water or soak in warm water and vinegar for some time. If glue don't come , boil the item with vinegar. 

10 . Milk and ice cream :-

Rinse through with cold water and launder or apply petrol  and launder

11. Curry ( Turmeric and oil) :-

Apply soap and then bleach in sunlight .

12. Perspiration, urine and vomit :-

Sponge lightly with mild vinegar solutions and launder. Ammonia can also be used.  If you have perspiration mark on white fabric use hydrogen peroxide and rinse and dry in sunlight.

12. Fruits and fruits juice :-

White fabrics may be bleached with sodium hypochlorite . Colour fabric may be soak in warm borax solutions and launder

13. Perfume :-

Wash immediately in hot water . A weak solution of acetic acid or ethyl alcohol helps




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