Components of Tourism

Tourism does not exist in isolation ; it consists of certain components without it cannot be operated. The tour undertaken by an individual is influenced by various components or elements. The components are part of tourism and are also known as 4 'A ' of tourism



There are four components of Elements of Tourism -

1. Attraction
2. Accessibility
3. Accomodation
4. Amenities

1. Attraction : It is the most important element and it influences a person to pull towards destination or inspires him to make visit / travel. Every country has different types of attraction which attracts tourists. The lack of attraction cannot pull visitors.  It helps people to decide which destination to visit. People can be attracted by various attraction like sunrise , waterfalls , trekking, historical sites , religious sites ,sports e.t.c. 

The Attraction generate flow of tourism to a particular destination. It is magnetic power on pull factor of tourism. 
Tourist attractions can be divided into three parts :-
  • Site attractions - site attraction refers to attraction created by nature . Any site which has been formed by natural process are known as site attraction. Example Himalayas of Nepal , Sahara desert , Niagara falls 
  • Built attraction - The built Attraction are those which have been built through human. It is created by man. It includes zoo , museum, historical and cultural sites. 
  • Event attraction -A country can organize special programs or create events that can attract tourist in big numbers . This is event attraction. 

2. Accessibility :- Accessibility is an important element of tourism . Accessibility means the way by which tourist can reach the destination easily.  Attraction is not only necessary it should be accessible also. A tourist in order to get a destination had to travel and some mode of transportation are necessary. If the mode of travel is cheaper, it receives maximum number of tourists.  It is a means by which Tourist can reach area where attraction are located. Transportation is very crucial and if tourist destination are located at place where no transport can reach they become of little value . For Accessibility the following provision should be there :-

Accessibility of Road transport
Accessibility of Air transport
Accessibility of Rail Transport
Accessibility of Marine transport
Accessibility of cable car Transport

More tourists will visit a place if all the forms of Transport are available. Example we compare rara lake and phewa lake - Rara lake is beautiful located in western Nepal but due to transportation problem only few Tourist visits it while Fewa lake is visited by millions because of facility of good Transportation 

3. Accomodation :- Accomodation is another important element of tourism. It is also one of the important factor that influence the Tourist to choose destination. Tourism arise from movement of people and their stay at destination. The accomodation complement the attraction. The tourist want Accomodation where they can spend the night comfortable and and be served good food. The place tourist visit must be easily accessible and when they reach destination they want good Accomodation with all facilities so they can relax and have good time. Accomodation must be excellent and includes hotel, guesthouses, lodges, apartment, restaurant and Bar for refreshment . Huge investment are necessary on Accomodation which are designed according to paying capacity of tourists. Accomodation in nice location and well designed with all facilities is also attraction. Tourist must spend at least one night on destination so Accomodation is important. No one will visit place if it have Attraction , Accessibility but no Accomodation

4. Amenities :- Amenities are important element of tourism . It don't generate tourist flow but its absence may distract tourist. It refers the elements which help tourist to get pleasure and satisfaction from destination. Modern amenities are important element of tourism. They are extra facilities and service provided by government, travel agencies, hotel, airlines e.t.c . Various amenities provided by government offices are visa , mountaineering permit , custom facilities , entry to various cultural and archaeological sites. Amenities also includes all necessary service and facilities to make guest feel comfortable in travel like rest , food ,sport, entertainment, communication, sightseeing communication. Example , a sea side resort provide facilities like swimming, boating , yachting , recreation.
The type of amenities are :-  natural and man-made where natural includes beaches, fishing, climbing, trekking, viewing and man made includes music ,drama, cinema, fair and festival, newspaper, magazine, telephone, internet, E mail, Internet and fax service. 

This are very important components to generate tourism flow and the basic backbone for tourism to flourish in any countries. 


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