Bakery Ingredients | Principles | Dough | Batter

The ingredients used in Patisserie works are:-

1. Flour
2. Raising Agents
3. Sugar
4. Salt
5. Egg
6. Butter
7. Milk
8. Flavouring

Basic principles of Bakery :-

1. Accurate Measurement - Everything needs to be Measured accurately . Do not use more or less than Measurement.

2. Always preheat the oven slightly above Required Cooking temperature . This will allow for any heat loss when loading oven. 

3. Try and Bake evenly size portion to ensure Even cooking 

4. Place food on the appropriate position in oven and food with pastry bases needed to bake low in oven to ensure complete cooking

5. Grease trays to prevent food from sticking

6. Heavy cake such as fruit cakes, chocolate cake  or cheese cake needs to be bake in low range . If these cakes are cooked at high temperature they burn on outside and undercooked on inside

7. Pastry Product like choux which is used for eclairs and creams needs a high temperature to allow steam Production and make Product rise

8. Products that are set by egg such as baked custard like cream caramel , lemon tart also require low temperature  

Basic Method Of Bakery / Dough production

1. Whisking method
2. Creaming method
3. Melting Method
4. Rubbing Method

1. Whisking method :- It requires wet mixture to be whisked inorder to incorporate air inside . The wet mixture is made of eggs , sugar and no raising Agents is used. These cakes are great if people are looking to eat less fat

2. Creaming Method :- creaming method is the base of many baked goods especially cakes and cookies. This method requires thorough creaming of butter and sugar before before any ingredients is added. Keep going untill butter and sugar mixture is pale , light only then eggs can be added and rest of dry ingredients. It is used for caramel cake , biscuits, chocolate chips cookies. 

3. Melting Method :- It is simple and quick method of baking. cakes made by melting Method are moist and more dense. Gingerbread and fruitcakes can be made by this Method. The butter used in cakes is often melted together before eggs and dry ingredients are added. There is no whisking so raising Agents are used.

4. Rubbing Method :- This process works by fat , usually butter being worked into flour.  Sugar is added and then little liquid is used to create dough 

Dough and Batter :-

Dough ( pate ) in French is made by mixing flour with small amount of water and other ingredients. Dough is kneaded but not baked. The main ingredient is flour and it keep shape as mass. 

Batter are usually thinner , more liquid and used as coating for fried food. Batter cannot be kneaded and main ingredient is flour , egg and water . 

Types of dough :-

Pasta dough
Pizza dough
Sour dough
Sweet dough
Bread dough
Croissant dough
Puff pastry dough
Phyllo dough
Straight dough
Leavened dough
Elastic dough
Laminated dough

Faults in Dough :-

1. Under kneading will cause dough to lack structure so it won't rise and overkneading possible in electric kneader cause dough to become warm and fermentation

2. Improper resting time

3. Too much yeast added In flour

4. Adding to much flour will make difficult to rise

5. Adding too much salt

Types of dough explanation :-

1. Leavened dough : Leavened dough is dough that has risen to its final form. The leavened dough achieves rising through fermentation or addition of raising Agents. Fermented dough are usually raised by yeast due to production of carbon dioxide gas. 

2. Unleavened dough : unleavened dough belongs to all of those baked dough that do not Rise in oven but rather stay thin or flaky. 

3. Laminated dough : laminated dough is made by folding a piece of pastry onto itself many times. In between each layer fat like butter is applied which creates flaky finished dough. The example of this dough is phyllo dough and puff pastry dough 

4. Straight dough : straight dough is simple dough made from all fresh ingredients which are placed together , mixed properly (kneaded ) allowed to rest after mixing. It is direct dough method and normally consists of flour 100% , water 60% , sugar and Butter 4% , salt 1% and yeast 5%. 

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