Administrative Theories | classical theories | Scientific Management Theory

There are three different theories to understand public administration.These are:

1. Classical Theories Of Public Administration
2. Neo - classical Theories of public administration
3. Modern Theory of public administration

1. Classical Theories of public administration :-

It is based on ideas generated in the late 1800 and early 1900 . It is concerned with production, productivity and efficiency. Classical Theories are three types :- scientific management theory,  Bureaucratic theory and Administrative theory 

a) Scientific Management theory :-

This theory focus on job . It is concerned with improving the performance of individual workers. F. W Taylor propounded this theory and he is also known as father of scientific management.
Productivity and efficiency are the goals of this theory and states " productivity can be improved endlessly  , Inefficiency should not be allowed" 

Principles of scientific management :-

  • One Best method :- There is one best method of performing each job . Time and Motion study should be used to find best method of performing job . Rule of thumb which is based on beliefs , experience , opinion should be avoided. 

  • Specialization :- There should be division of work for specialization . Worker should be specialized in particular type of job to achieve high level of efficiency.

  • Workers Education and development :- workers are like machines . The machine works best when we'll maintained and lubricated. Similarly proper trained and development workers produce best .

  • Management labour Harmony :- Management and labour have common interest in increasing productivity . There should be harmony in their relation . Rising profit benefits both

  • Mental Revolution :- Management should give good working environment and solve their problems.

Steps in scientific Management :- 

1. Determine of standard of performance through time and Motion study.

2. Scientifically select employees through qualifications, skill, knowledge

3. Supervise employees to ensure they follow prescribed method.

4. Separation of planning and doing.

Contributions of scientific management theory :-

1. It promoted mass production

2. It replaced rule of thumb by scientific method

3. Specialization of job is facilitated

4. It gave Importance to proper selection, training of workers and matching people with job 

5. It emphasis proper communication between Management and Employee

6. It focused on workers development and training 

7. It lead to foundation of other theories.


Disadvantages of scientific management :-

1. It has less application in dynamic and complex Organization

2. Too much emphasis is given in Economics nature of man

3. Man are treated as Machines instead of Resources

4. There is no one best method .

5. It ignored human relations theories.

6. It does not favour team work

7. People can also be motivated by other ways except money 

8. Workers become prisoner to time and Motion study

9. It is mainly applicable to labour intensive work.

10 . It ignored nature of men and their emotional and physiological needs.






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