Cross - Contamination and Food Poisoning

Cross contamination refers to accidental transformation of germs from raw food to cook food. Contamination is the major cause of food poisoning . Every kitchen personnel should have knowledge about cross contamination and ways to prevent them. 
Cross contamination are three types :- 

1. Direct 
2. Indirect
3. Air - borne

Direct Cross contamination occurs if we store raw food above cooked food in refrigerator or any place. The dripping of juice, water from raw food to cooked food also contaminate the cooked food. Thus, such type of carelessness should be avoided

Indirect cross contamination occurs if the same knife , chopping board which is used to handle raw meat,food again is used to handle cooked meat, food. The germs from raw meat will contaminate the cooked meat . Separate chopping board and knife should be used to handle raw food and cooked food

Air - Borne cross contamination occurs if we accidentally sneeze/cough in prepared food items . The germs during sneezing and coughing contaminate the food .

Food poisoning

Food should be edible, Non toxic , should be digested by our body and should contain at least 1 Nutrient. Nutrients are the chemical substances present in the food .

Food poisoning is an illness as a result of eating or drinking food that has been contaminated.Food can be contaminated during production, processing, storage and cooking.
The micro- organisms responsible for illness are commonly called germs and food may also be contaminated by chemicals or by natural toxin present in food .


Food poisoning usually occured after 1-36 hour of eating contaminated food.

The common symptoms of food poisoning are :-
Nausea, vomiting, Diarrhoea , stomach pain , weakness , Muscle pains , fever , loss of appetite , abdominal pain and dehydration. 


1. Bacteria and germs :- 

They are microscope organisms and found everywhere. They enters the food from human, animals , or other source . Sometimes they also produce toxins and they are the number one cause of food poisoning. E.g salmonella , campylobacter clostridium, staphylococcus, vibrio e.t.c

2. Natural :- 

Few plants and seafood are natural source of toxin i.e toxin is present on them naturally. E.g amanita species of mushroom, blow fish , poisonous crab .

3. Chemicals :-

Chemicals are used for cleaning purposes . Some chemicals found in water are also cause of food poisoning. Arsenic is used to promote growth of fruit ,if not washed properly it can also cause food poisoning. Lead poisoning can also occour if water is in contact with lead pipe.

4 Metal :-

Acidic food should not be stored on copper container as it will take out harmful amount of copper and may cause reaction with food. also chemicals like Mercury should be handled with care 

5. Virus :- 

Rota virus , Noro virus are most common cause of food poisoning.

Some causes and of food poisoning are :- 

1. Food prepared in advance 
2. Cooling food too slowly
3. Not Re -heating food to high temperature
4. Under cooking
5. By cross contamination
6. Storing food at improper temperature
7. Poor food safety practise

Control remedies :-

1. Do not place hot food directly on refrigerator
2. Cook food thoroughly
3. Keep food covered
4. Do not store food between temperature danger zone which is 5 to 63 degree Celsius.
5. Keep raw food and cooked food separate
6. Do not overload refrigerator
7. Use clean drinking water during cooking
8 wash fruit and vegetables throughly.
9. Handle food with hand least .use tong , plastic gloves .
10. Keep food covered.
11. Prevent cross - contamination
12 clean as you go during cooking.
13. Avoid drinking raw milk
14. Practise high degree of cleanliness
15.sick person should not be allowed to work
16. Thaw food properly

Food you should avoid during food poisoning :-

Alcohol, Nicotine , Caffeine ,Milk ,cheese , spicy food , fried food , fatty food ,high sugar content , spicy food

Food you should take :-

Bananas , Rice , Boiled vegetables, dilute fruit juice.

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