Beef | cuts of Beef | Stages of Cooking Beef | Types of steak

Beef are generally slaughtered at 10 months of age . It is the name for meat of domesticated cattle and includes meat of cows , bulls , heifers. Beef meat is red meat and it is tougher than veal. Beef meat is used in different cuisines of western world.

Beef meat is taboo food in Hindu culture and Jains . 

Beef meat is very rich in nutrition and excellent sources of protein and vitamins. A 100 gram of well marbled beef meat have fat 18.5 gram , protein 27.2 gram, iron 2.72 mg , vitamin B 12 - 2.50 mg. 

The below figure shows different cuts of beef  .

  • The Neck is the tougher cut and only suitable for long , slow ,moist cooking
  • Chuck and blade are little more tender and sold as Braising steak and comes from around shoulder. It is very tough if not cooked properly and is economical and widely available cut used in stews and casserole. 
  • fore rib has higher fat content throughout flesh  and can be sold boned or on the bone 
  • Thick rib is suitable and sold as Braising steak
  • Thin rib is tougher cut and sold as minced meat
  • Brisket is often sold boned and suitable for slow pot Roasting. It comes from chest area between shoulder. it also has large amount of fat which is marbled throughout and adds flavour. It is usually sold boned and needs to be slow cooked. It is most popular cut for making corned beef
  • Shin is tougher cut suitable for long ,slow , moist cooking. It is one of the cheapest cut of beef available which comes from foreleg of beef . It is suitable to stews.
  • Sirloin is prime cut suitable for Roasting. It is situated between rump and fillet. It has perfect balance of fat and tenderness. While cooking regular basting helps to prevent it from drying 
  • Thin flank is often used for minced meat. 
  • Leg is tougher cut and sold as stewing steak.
  • Shank is tougher cut and sold as mince meat.
  • Rump is prime cut . It is cheaper than fillet and sirloin as it is not so tender .it is cut from backside of the cow. The muscle of rump is used quite in animal life so meat tends to be tougher than other prime cuts.
  • Silverside require frequent basting .it is sold as joint for roasting. It is located just above the silverside and has very little marbling. Frequent basting prevent it from drying out.
  • Topside has a layer of fat around sold as a joint for roasting. It requires frequent basting.it is Similar to silverside and comes from inner thigh of the cow. It has some layer of fat securing around which will baste it while cooking but fat content is lower .it does not require slow cooking.
STAGES OF COOKING BEEF 


There are various stages of cooking beef which we should have knowledge . The stages of cooking depends upon time , internal temperature and preference of customer. 

1. Rare :-  The rare meat of beef is cool or warm at center. The meat is 75% red inside. It is like raw meat cooked in outside. The cooking time is 2 - 3 minutes for each side and internal temperature 52 - 55 degree Celsius. Resting time is 6 minutes.

2. Medium rare :- The inside is 50% red and have internal temperature 55 - 60 degree Celsius. The medium rare is firm in outside and soft juicy on inside. Cooking time is 3-4 minutes for each side. Resting time is 6 minutes.

3. Medium :- cooking time for medium is 4 - 5 minutes for each side. There is clear band of pink in middle of steak. The internal temperature is 60 - 65 degree Celsius. 

4. Medium well :- Medium well is chewy and have little moisture inside. It is gray brown throughout but little hint of pink inside. It is slightly juicy with no sign of blood. The meat is cooked 5 - 6 minutes each side and internal temperature 65 - 70 degree Celsius.

5. Well done :- It is crisp outside and completly cooked  inside. It has no sign of pink , slightly charred on outside . Cooking good steak to this level is a challenge. Each side is cooked for 6 - 7 minutes and have internal temperature of 71 - 100 degree Celsius.

STEAK AND TYPES OF STEAK 

Steak is higher quality cut cut of beef meat. It is slice of meat cut from fleshy part of beef carcass. They are prime and expensive cut. Steak is simply a cut of meat which are cut from  grazing animals like cattle, bison , horse, deer , camel e.t.c . The best types of steak are tender , juicy and well marbled. Fat is the main flavouring component in steak. The muscle of animal less used are more marbled , tender so best cut are in centre of beef mainly in rib and loin section.

When buying a steak we have to see its colour , marbling ,  moisture , expiry date and Grade. Fresh steak is bright red while brown spot sign on old steak. Similarly, well marbled steak are best as it affects tenderness and moistness. Prime grade is the best and the less moisture is there in package , the fresher is the steak.

1. T - bone steak :- They are considered higher quality of steak due to their tenderness and flavour.It have T shaped bone with  piece of tenderloin on one side and strip of top loin steak on other. They are expensive cut and are very flavorful with moderate far marbling. They are good for grilling, pan frying. 

2. Sirloin steak :-  Sirloin is the most popular steak and divided into Top Sirloin and Bottom Sirloin. Bottom sirloin is tougher and larger while top sirloin better cut and labelled as sirloin in in market. It is cut from sirloin section and are expensive and tender. It can be cooked by high temperature cooking along with pan frying and grilling.

3. New York strip steak :- It is particular cut of Top sirloin and called as top sirloin , top loin steak. It is boneless piece , tender and juicy with moderate marbling . It is mainly used for pan frying and grilling.

4. Skirt steak :- It is long , thin cut from diaphragm muscle. It is healthier and flavourful beef cut and also budget friendly. It is less tender and cooked by marinating.

5. Flank steak :-  It is large and thin cut from belly of steak. The flank steak is neither tender not toughest. It is budget friendly and best cooked at medium to rare doneness. It will be chewy if well done. 

6. Tomahawk :- It is a cut of beef rib eye that has whole rib bone attached. It is also called cowboy steak and is extremely flavourful and well marbled. It can be baked at lower temperature and seared at high temperature to finish ( reverse searing technique).

7. Rib eye steak :- Rib eye steak are juicy , tender and flavorful. It is boneless rib steak . It is very expensive and tender as it is well marbled. 

8. Fillet mignon ( Tenderloin steak ) :- It is most tender cut of beef and from muscle on the back of cow.  It has mild flavour and less marbling . Fillet mignon is expensive cut and suitable for grilling , pan - searing , baking . It can be best cooked by searing in pan at high temperature and finishing at oven. 

9. Chuck eye steak :- it is also called poor man rib eye and located close to the rib eye steak. It is flavourful and and low cost. There are only 2 chick eye steak available per Cow. It come from upper shoulder. 

Note :- Tender cut , well marbled steak are excellent for cooking at high temperature using dry heat Medium like Grilling, baking . Example : T bone steak , new york , ribeye steak tends to be tender while medium marbled steak are less tender so they are marinated before cooking at high temperature.  Example flank steak and skirt steak 


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