Evolution of public administration | origin of public administration

Public administration is as old as organized society . It is an activity of government and has passed several phases since it's beginning. It has involved five major periods :-

1. Phase 1 :- politics Adminstration dichotomy (1887 - 1926 )

It is about changing nature of public administration. the following change came -
  • Separation of public administration from political science.
  • Public administration become visible side of government.
  • Professor woodrow Wilson has given definition, nature ,role and importance of public administration.
  • L.D white has written first textbook on public administration.
  • goodnow made distinction between politics and Administration supporting Wilson theme.
2. Phase 2 :- principle of Administration (1927 to 1937) 

This period is called principles of Administration as it established discipline of public administration . Important works were published including Mooney principles of organization , Henri fayol industrial and general management , Luther gullick science of Administration; POSDCORB.

  • principles of Administration theories were developed
It was considered science of administration. 

3. Phase III  :-.      ( 1938 - 1947)

This period brought new changes in nature of public administration . It was difficult time for development of public administration as the world was in chaos due to world war 2.  
  • Environmental effect on administrative behaviour was emphasized.
  • They challenge claim of public administration as science
Some thinkers refuted political Administration dichotomy. This period is called era of challenge to public administration.   

4. Phase IV :- (1948 to 1979 )

Pfiffner stated that politics and Administration are so intermingled and confusing that clear distinction is difficult. 
  • Kingsley saw Administration as a branch of politics.
  • The view of seeing public administration as political science and Administrative science was developed.

5. Phase V :- ( 1971 onwards)     

Public administration registered progress and got vision.  In phase five ,great  development in public administration took place.

  • New public administration talk begin
  • New and dynamic  matters of Administration were focused 
  • New trend emerged :- 
- comparative public administration and 
- Development Administration   

Fred Riggs is the father of comparative public administration which emphasis  cross cultural and cross national study of public administration and fred  Riggs pointed out three points in C.P.A :-

1. From normative to   experimental orientation
2. From ideographic to nomothetic orientation
3. From non- ecological to ecological orientation. 

Normative to experimental orientation means study of scientific method with a view to evolve or develop public administration by eradicating rule of thumb/ assumption base study

Ideographic orientation means study of one national only.
Nomothetic orientation means universal studies . We go from individual to universal study.

Ecological orientation meant study of environment of Administrative system and interaction between two .  Administrative system operates with in political system and is influenced by social and economic forces.


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