Moist Heat Medium and Dry Heat Medium of Cooking

                           Cooking Method
                                 |.           |
Moist Heat Medium.          Dry Heat Medium

  • Boiling                              1.    Roasting
  • Poaching.                         2.    Frying
  • Braising.                           3.   Grilling
  • Stewing                            4.    Baking
  • Steaming.                         5.  Smoking 
  •                                            6.  Broiling

Moist Heat Medium and Dry Heat Medium of Cooking

Methods of Cooking by Moist Heat Medium

It refers to prepare various dishes using water, stock , moisture medium . Moist Heat method of cooking is very important from health and hygienic point of view. Boiling , steaming, Braising , poaching and stewing fall under moist Heat medium of cooking.

1. Boiling :-

 Boiling is the method of cooking food in plenty of boiling water  or water base liquid. Boiling can be done by following ways :-

  • Rolling boil :- It is very harsh technique of cooking food above 100 degree Celsius so it is not suitable for delicate food items . It is only suitable for red meat, root vegetables

  • Simmering :- It  is the process in which food items are cooked in hot liquid kept below boiling point of water . The temperature is higher than poaching temperature.  Temperature of 92 degree Celsius is maintained.

  • Blanching :-  In blanching the food items are immersed in boiling water for short period of time , removed and cold bath to stop further cooking.

  • Parboiling :- It is partial boiling of food in order to finish it later .

Rules for Boiling :- 

1. The food items should be completely immersed in liquid  medium

2. Scum should be removed or it will discolour the food items

3. Green leafy vegetables can be boiled without covering in boiling water and to preserve colour baking powder can be added a pinch. It also prevents vitamin loss

4.  Root vegetables and vegetables that grow above ground must be boiled starting from cold water with salt.

5. Flavour can be enhanced by adding Herbs 

6. Never Boil fish

7. Stock , soup and sauce should be simmered , not boiled

2. Poaching :-

Poaching temperature is between 71 - 85 degree Celsius. In poaching , food items are cooked gently in minimum amount of liquid. the liquid may be water , stock , Milk . Poaching liquid is also called court bouillon which is made of acid , Bouquet garni , Mirepoix and poaching liquid

Rules for poaching :-

1. Whole fish should be poached by placing in cold water and cut fish should be poached by placing in hot water

2. While poaching chicken , the internal temperature of chicken should reach 74 degree Celsius.

3. Adding Vinegar during poaching prevents disintegration.

4. Food item should be completely immersed in the liquid. 

5. Fresh egg should be added one at a time

6. Poaching should be done in gentle heat

3. Steaming 

Steaming is a method of cooking using water vapour . Steaming is capable of cooking all kinds of food . It is also healthy cooking technique . The food items are keep in contact with steam but away from boiling water. Steaming are two types :- Direct steaming and Indirect steaming. In direct steaming food items are kept in direct contact with steam . e. g - MOMO making . Indirect steaming is done when food items are placed in close pan ,which is surrounded by plenty of steam from Boiling water.

Rules for steaming :-

1. Green vegetables are not suitable for steaming as they will discolour. cooked by steaming retains all nutrients and flavour

3. Only suitable food should be steamed .

4. Care must be taken as temperature of steam is higher than boiling temperature of water so steam is severe.

4. Stewing 

Stewing is cooking method that is nearly identical to braising but involves smaller pieces of food / meat. It is slow cooking method of food in liquid medium and ideal for tough cut of meat. Ingredients in stew involves combination of vegetables, meat.
Stew are thickened by its own unpassed ingredients or beurre manie .

Rules for stewing :- 

1. Cooking time should be long and slow.

2. Seasoning and flavoured are added to the cooking liquid 

3. The food should never be more than half covered with liquid .

4. It is suitable for rough cut .

5. The meat and vegetables should be smaller size.

5. Braising :- 

The word Braising is is derived from the French word Braiser. It is combination cooking method using both moist and dry heat . Typically, food is seared at high temperature and then finished in covered pot with liquid. The braising liquid contain only sufficient liquid to cover the Mirepoix and involves larger, cheaper cut of milk . Braising are two types :- 

1. Brown braising :- meat is seared and cooked on bed of Mirepoix with appropriate sauce 

2. White Braising :- food is cooked in bed of Mirepoix with white stock .

Rules for Braising :-

1. It is economic and brings more flavourful dish

2. Fresh aromatic herbs and vegetables should be used as bed while Braising

3. Suitable for tough nature of food

4. Braised vegetables are better if served with good sauce made separately

5. While searing the colour should be even for meat and only braised.

In Braising food items are cooked by both frying and boiling method simultaneously.

Methods of Cooking by Dry Heat Medium

Method of cooking food by dry heat medium refers to prepare various dishes using fat/oil in different styles. Food items are generally marinated with herbs, spices and other related ingredients which makes food very delicious 

1. Roasting :-

Roasting is cooking method that involves uses dry heat , whether an open flame , oven or other heat source . Roasting cause browning of food and flavour is enhanced. Meats and most root and bulb vegetables are roasted . Roasted food are very tastier.

Types of Roasting :-

1. Spit Roasting :- In this method, food to be cooked are brought in direct contact with flame and turned regularly to ensure even cooking and browning. It is used in parties and suitable for first cut of meat .

  • If the meat is frozen, it should be thawed
  • Basting should be done regularly otherwise meat will dry out
  • Control speed of cooking by adjusting speed of rotation.

2. Pot Roasting :- In this method , the bottom of pan is greased properly to prevent meat from sticking then the pan is covered tightly with well fitting lid .

  • Mirepoix and Bouquet garni should be put for flavouring in the pot
  • Item of meat should be of top and fresh quality
  • It is suitable for poultry and game 
  • The joint should be basted frequently 

3. Oven Roasting :- It is cooking in Roasting tray in an oven with help of fat. First class meat can be roasted and the meat is also trussed after stuffing ,if necessary . Trussing helps to retain taste. The meat is also basted frequently.. 

  • Meats should be at room temperature before roasting
  • Place poultry with breast side down 
  • Temperature of oven should be reduced to 170 degree Celsius from 230 degree after some time 
  • Food must be frequently basted
  • Use meat thermometer to ensure cooked properly
  • Suitable for first cut of meat

4. Tandoori Roasting :- It is method of traditional Indian cooking in tandoor . Tandoor is heated by wood , charcoal. Food items are marinated in yogurt ,herbs and spices and rest for sometime then cooked in Tandoor.

  • If tandoori oven is made of clay, enough wood or charcoal has to be filled.
  • Accompaniment and garnishes should be prepared to present the food.
  • Item can be cooked in various ways
  • All necessary equipment should be placed near 

2. Frying :-

Frying is cooking of food in oil or fat . The technique of frying is believed to be origin in Egypt around 2500 BC. It is quick method of cooking and cooked food items are really delicious. frying are following types :- 

1. Shallow frying :- shallow frying is the process of cooking food in small quantity of oil in pan. Shallow frying is following types :-

  •  Stir frying :- It is done in wok . This method of cooking was originated from items are cooked in high heat stirring continuously for some time.

  • Sauteing :- In French it meant to jump. Food items are cooked in less fat , on high heat tossing with salt and pepper usually.

  • Pan - frying :- It is cooking in minimum cooking oil in pan . The oil is just enough to lubricate the pan 

Rules :- 

1. Items should be seasoned before shallow fried.

2. The pan should have thick bottom

3. Drain the food well after frying

2. DEEP FRYING :- It involves complete immersion of food in pre heated oil . If the fat is not hot enough the food breaks down and absorbs extra fat . The temperature for frying is between 160 degree Celsius to 195 degree Celsius.

Rules for deep frying :-

1. Fried items should have golden colour

2. Fried item should be served immediately

3. Food should be season after frying

4. Drain food properly after frying

5. Wet food item should be dried before frying

6. Always we should ensure oil is pre heat enough before deep frying.

3. Baking :-

Baking is used primarily for preparation of bread, cakes , pastries , cookies. Baking is the technique of cooking food in oven by dry heat medium. The food gets usually cooked by convection current produced. Baking is also used in preparation of baked potatoes, apples, pasta dishes like lasagne. 

Rules for Baking :

1. Products must be placed on greased trays

2. Oven should be pre -heated.

3. Items should be placed in right position in oven.

4. Oven should have correct temperature according to food items 

5. The ingredients should be measured accurately. 

4. Grilling and broiling :-

In grilling the food is cooked mainly by heat in form of infrared waves by cooking on grills bars which are pre - heated with and brushed with fat to prevent sticking of food. The source of heat may be charcoal , gas , electricity. In grilling , food can be cooked by:-

1. Over heat :-

Food items are placed on greased bar over heat source . Grilled bars are pre heated and brushed with fat before using . e.g grills bar, charcoal bar ,barbeque . Only suitable for first class cut of meat and poultry.

2. Under Heat :-

Under heat broiling is usually done by salamander broiler which is Kitchen Equipment that produce very high temperature where heat source is located above .

3. Between Heat :-

Food is placed between heated bars or plates. It is usually applied to meat.

Rules for grilling/ Broiling :-

1. Marinate the food and rest it at least 30 minutes for grilling

2. Smaller items require short and quick cooking

3. Tongs are used for turning and lifting

4. Basting regularly helps to prevent dryness and even colour

5. Slow cooking results food drying out 

6. Always brush the grill bars with fat other wise food will stick to it.

7. Cooking time is varied according to size and nature of food.

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