Untold facts about Milk that will Impress your Friends

Untold facts about Milk that will Impress your Friends


All Milk used in commercial kitchen is cow's Milk. Milk is nutritionally complete food and source of protein , fat , carbohydrates , vitamin and minerals. Milk sugar is lactose while millk protein is caesin.

Composition of Milk :

Nutrient.                               gm /100 gm
Carbohydrate.                          4.5
Water.                                        87.8
Protein.                                      3.4
Vitamins.                                    1.0 
Minerals.                                    1. 0

Types of Milk :

1. Channel island milk :- it has very high fat content with average fat 5.1 % . It have creamy taste and comes from Nursery breed of cow.

2. Whole milk :- it have fat content of 3.8 % and usually is pasteurised.

3. Semi - skimmed milk :- it has fat content between 1.5 - 1.8 % and comes as pasteurised form 

4.condensed milk :- More water is evaporated from milk 

5. Evaporated milk :-  it has 60 % of water removed .

6. Fully skimmed milk :- it comes as pasteurized  and ultra heat treatment form with fat 0.1 %

Milk is white due to casein . Milk sugar is known as lactose.

Storage of milk :

1. Keep milk away from smelling food as it absorbs smell easily.
2. Store milk in refrigerator
3. Prevent milk from  cross contamination.

Milk heat treatment :

Milk is treated to kill harmful bacteria and germs present in it and also to increase shelf life during storage . Milk should be treated as it is favourite food for bacteria also.

1. Pasteurization :- In pasteurization , milk is heated at 72 degree Celsius for 15 seconds or at 63 degree Celsius for 30 minutes. It also increase shelf life storage of milk . High temperature less time.

2. Ultra heat treatment :- milk is Homogenized and heated to temperature of 135 degree Celsius for one minutes unopened. It can be used for longer time.

3. homogenized :-  Milk is passed through fine aperture . The fat content gets evenly distributed when milk is passed through fine aperture.

Milk products :

1. Cheese -

Cheese is also called fromage in French.  It takes 10 litre milk to produce 1 kg of cheese . Cheese is high concentrated food and is rich in fat , protein , minerals, salt and vitamin . It is believed that cheese making is pass from generation to generation.

Types of cheese 

1. Hard cheese
2. Soft cheese
3. Semi hard cheese
4. Blue - vein cheese

There are more than 400 varieties of cheese. Hard cheese is matured for longer time . A good hard cheese is difficult to cut . It have low moisture content. E g cheddar , parmesan , Derby , Edam .

Soft  cheese has high percentage of fat and moisture and is easy to spread. E g cream cheese , pammes

Blue vein cheese is flavoured with addition of some herbs and condiments. It is very expensive and used in spaghetti mostly.

Semi - hard cheese is matured with less moisture and have high fat content . It is easier to cut than hard cheese

Storage and usage of cheese :- 

1. Store in cool dry and well ventilated store
2. Cheese should be always served at Room temperature. 
3. Cheese should be kept away from smelling food
4. Grated cheese stored in jar will turn moldy.
5. Cheese tends to dry rapidly after cutting so proper care should be taken by wrapping with aluminium foil.

Cheese is used in various Italian dishes, garnishes as soup, pasta , cheese cakes , cheese pie . 

2. Butter

The colour of butter varies from pale to deep yellow and its flavour get affected by the cream used. The composition of butter is 80% fat and 20% water and whey . Milk protein in whey makes butter spoil faster . It can be made from cow, buffalo, yak ,goat and sheep milk .

Most butter contains some salt between 1 and 2.5 % to enhance flavour and increase their storage life. 
It is made by churning of fresh cream. In puff pastry we need tough butter while soft butter is used in cake making.

Butter is clarified to separate the fat from water and  milk - solid. so that fat don't turn bitter . There are two types of butter available :-

1. Soured :-  it is made from soured cream and has superior flavour but limited shelf life . Danish butter is sour butter . 

2. Sweet cream :-  the cream is not ripened before churning so salt salt content is higher which usually ranges from 1.5 % to 2.5% . They have longer shelf life but not strong flavour  as other . E.g - Australian butter ,English butter 

50 gram of butter gives 350 kilocalorie of butter.  

                    Margarine Vs Butter

Margarine can be used as substitute for butter as it works same purposes as butter . It is cheaper than butter but it does not taste as good as butter . Margarine is not inferior to butter from nutritional point of view .

It is made first by extracting oil and fat from raw material, it is then refined , blended , flavoured and colored ,then mixed with fat free pasteurized milk . The emulsion is churned ,cooled and pack. 

The smell of margarine is not pleasant and the flavour will be inferior than butter soo cannot be used widely. It is nutritious as equal to butter and cheaper than butter. 

3. Cream and yogurt



CREAM :-

The fat content in cream is higher than milk but water content and other nutrients are lower . Cream is separate from milk and goes for heat treatment. Cream for whipping should contain more than 30% butter fat while other cream contain 18% of butter fat. Cream is skimmed from top of milk .

Never substitute whipped cream with fresh cream in bakery.

YOGURT :- 

A Bacterial starter culture is added to the milk which cause natural sugar of milk Lactose to ferment into Lactic acid. Normally there are two types of yogurt :-
1. Stirred yogurt 
2. Set yogurt

Set yogurt has more solid texture than stirred yogurt and remember , Never throw water on top of curd as it is very Nutritious.

















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