Sauce | Mother Sauce | Types | Importance

Sauce may be defined as flavourful liquid usually thickened that is used to season, flavour and enhance other food . Sauce is mainly used for moistness, richness, appearance and flavour.  " The sauce is to culinary art what grammar is to language" . A perfect sauce has colourful appearance,glowing in its Rich smoothness ,definite taste and natural flavour


The structure of sauce is :-


I) A liquid, body of sauce


II) Thickening agent


III) Additional seasonings.


IMPORTANCES OF SAUCES IN FOOD PREPARATION


I) Enhance flavours


II) Sauces helps in digestion e.g Mint sauce


III) It give moistness to the food


IV) It add colour to the food


V. Enhances Nutritional value of the food


VI. Makes food more palatable


VII. Served as an accompaniment



GOOD QUALITIES OF SAUCE :-


1. The texture should be soft and smooth


2. Sauce should have good shine


3. There should not be uncooked starch


4. They should not be thick like paste


5. They should not be highly flavoured


6. Also sauce should be colourful and nutritious


Mother sauce :-


'Mother Sauce ' refers to anyone of the five basic sauces which are starting point for making various secondary sauces .

They are called Mother sauces because each one like the head of its own unique family of sauces.

Each mother sauce is made with different liquid and different thickening agents although three of the mother sauces are thickened with Roux. In each case, Roux is cooked for a different amount of time to produce lighter or darker colour. Roux is a mixture of flour and butter in equal quantity cooked together. For white sauce ( bechamel ) we need white roux , for veloute we need blonde roux and for brown sauce we need brown roux. Roux can be pronounced as ' Ru ' more specifically (Ru)


Bechamel sauce :

Bechamel sauce is named after Louis de bechamel . It is prepared with white roux and mildly flavoured with onion . It does not require stick and made with Milk, flour and butter .


Recipe for bechamel sauce :-


Ingredients.      5 litre.       1 litre


Flour.                 450 gram.  90 gram


Butter.                450 gram. 90 gram


Milk.                       5 litres.   1 litre


Studded onion.   125 gram.   25 gram

With clove and bay leaf


Preparation :-


  • Bring milk to boil with studded onion and set aside


  • Melt butter,add flour , stir and cook roux over gentle heat without colouring till it gets sandy texture


  • Pour the milk into the roux stirring continuously with a wooden spoon to avoid lump


  • Simmer gently for half an hour . Remove studded onion and pass through a fine strainer.


II) VELOUTE SAUCE :-


it is a basic blond sauce . It is prepared from blond roux and a stock. it gets its name from the type of stock used .


Recipe for veloute :-


Ingredients.          5 litre.     1 litre


Butter.                  400 gram.  90 gram


Flour.                    400 gram.  90 gram


Stock.                      5 litre.       1 litre


Preparation :-


  • Prepare blond roux


  • Add cold stock to the roux, stir vigorously to avoid lumps.


  • Simmer gently for one hour , stirring frequently with wooden spoon.


  • Pass through a fine strainer.


Note :- fish veloute should be cooked for 20 minutes only and wine should be added at a later stage


3. BROWN OR ESPAGNOLE SAUCE :-


It is made by thickening brown stock with roux . It is made with tomato puree and roasted Mirepoix for deeper colour . Demi-glaze is derrivative of brown stock and widely used for other brown sauce derrivative.


Recipe for Brown sauce :-


Ingredients.          5 litre.      1 litre


Butter                   300 gram.  60 gram


Flour.                   350 gram.   70 gram


Tomato puree.    150 gram.  30 gram


Brown stock.        8 litre.        1 1/4 litre


Butter.                 75 gram.     15 gram


Carrots.                350 gram.   70 gram


Onions                350 gram.    70 gram


Parsley,celery,bayleaf.    10 gram.   3 gram


Method of preparation :-


  • Prepare brown roux in a heavy bottomed pan and cool.


  • Add tomato puree constantly stirring to prevent lumps


  • Gradually mix in hot stock ,stirring to blend well and cook on gentle fire.


  • Saute the Mirepoix in fat and add sauteed vegetables to the sauce .


  • Simmer for 4-6 hour and remove scum when it comes to top.


Note :- over browning should be avoided as this tends to make sauce bitter


4. HOLLANDAISE SAUCE :-


it is warm yellow and rich sauce with high percentage of fat and egg yolk . It is emulsion of butter , lemon juice and egg yolk. It is accompaniment to cauliflower , asparagus , brocolli and served over grilled or baked fish , vegetables .


Recipe of Hollandaise sauce :-


Ingredients.       500 gram.      200 gram


Butter.                500 gram.      200 gram


Egg yolk.               5 nos.             2 nos


Lemon juice.        10 ml.             5 ml


Crushed peppercorns. 8              5


Method of preparation :-


  • Melt butter in a pan and keep aside.


  • Place crushed peppercorns and vinegar in a pan and reduced completly.


  • Add one tablespoon of water and let it cool.


  • Add egg yolk and whisk.


  • Place the pan in a double boiler and whisk the egg yolks till a sabayon is formed . Then gradually add the melted butter till it gets blended and form smooth Sauce. Add lemon juice .


  • Strain through a fine strainer.


NOTE :- IF HOLLANDAISE TURNS OR CURDLES OR IS TOO THICK ,BEAT A LITTLE HOT WATER ,A LITTLE AT A TIME. IF TOO THIN, ADD A TEASPOON OF LEMON JUICE TO TABLE SPOON OF SAUCE IN WARM BOWL AMD WHISK UNTILL IT IS THICK. THEN ADD REMAINING MIXTURE A LITTLE AT A TIME WHISKING.



5. Tomato sauce



It is made with butter, oil tomato , tomato puree, chopped garlic ,onion , red wine.


Derivative of tomato sauce :-


1. Tomato sauce + white wine + tomato concase + garlic = Portuguese sauce


2. Tomato sauce + Tomato ketchup + vinegar + sugar + Tobasco = Barbecue sauce


3. Tomato sauce + onion + white wine + chopped parsley + butter = Bretonne sauce


4. Tomato sauce + Tomato + mushroom + parsley + garlic + sugar = provencal sauce



Note : mayonnaise is no longer considered mother sauce. It is a cold sauce.

For more details in sauce please , refer next article.



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